Eye Diseases The following is a list of common eye diseases. For information about eye problems such as astigmatism, blepharitis, keratoconus and many more please see Eye Conditions. Cataracts Cataracts are a common cause of vision loss after age 55. Learn more about recognizing cataracts symptoms, protecting your eyes and understanding cataract surgery. Macular Degeneration Macular Degeneration is an eye disease that affects the portion of the eye responsible for processing fine detail and providing sharp central vision (called the macula).